This knowledge path about infant
mortality and pregnancy loss has been compiled by
the MCH Library at Georgetown University.
It offers a selection of recent, high-quality resources
that analyze data, report on research aimed at identifying
causes and promising intervention strategies, and
describe risk-reduction efforts as well as bereavement-support
programs. Separate sections identify resources on
factors that contribute to infant mortality and pregnancy
loss: birth defects, injuries, low birthweight and
prematurity, pregnancy and preconception, and safe
sleep environments. This knowledge path for health
and social services professionals, policymakers,
researchers, child care providers, and families will
be updated periodically.
of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality (SACIM): Recommendations
for Department of Health and Human Services
Action and Framework for a National Strategy (2013) for a plan to reduce
infant mortality in the United States. The report includes background on the
of infant mortality in the United States, principles for a national
strategy, and details related to six strategic directions for reducing
See the set of definitions presented
by the Sudden
Unexpected Infant Death (SUID) and Sudden Infant Death
Syndrome (SIDS) Gateway,
which describes the terms often associated with infant
mortality and pregnancy loss.
See the set of statistics about
infant mortality and pregnancy loss from the Sudden
Unexpected Infant Death (SUID) and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Gateway.
of SIDS and Infant Mortality Programs (ASIP). Contact
information for state maternal and child
health (MCH) and sudden and unexpected infant
death (SUID) programs; a listserv to
support state and local infant-mortality and
risk-reduction programs; a nationwide calendar
of events by organizations whose work is
related to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS),
SUID, infant mortality, and safe sleep environments;
a collection of promising
practices for addressing SUID; and other
resources. ASIP supports state and local infant
and child death programs through sharing information,
promoting policy and legislative changes, building
upon resources, and fostering partnerships
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Resources and initiatives aimed at reducing
infant mortality and pregnancy loss include
of Reproductive Health: Maternal and Infant Health
Research. Links to reports, data, and other resources
about promoting healthy pregnancy and infant health
and preventing premature birth and infant illness
and mortality, including SIDS
and SUID. CDC's Sudden,
Unexplained Infant Death Initiative (SUIDI) aims
to improve the investigation and reporting of SUID.
Resources include an SUID investigation reporting
form and training
materials to assist those who investigate infant
CDC's Morbidity & Mortality
Weekly Report (MMWR).
Reports that summarize data
submitted to CDC weekly by
state health departments. Search for
reports on the topics by
mortality" in the
search field and a publication
date range. Click on Search
to get your results. Conduct
another search by entering "pregnancy
loss" OR stillbirth OR miscarriage.
Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). National
data about infant mortality and pregnancy loss
organized as follows:
CDC's Public Health Grand Rounds: Public Health Approaches to Reducing U.S. Infant Mortality. (2012). [Webinar].
- View linked
birth and infant death data for information
from the birth and death certificates for
each infant who dies in the United States.
Information from the birth certificate
such as age, race, and Hispanic origin
of the parents, birthweight, period of
gestation, plurality, prenatal care usage,
maternal education, live birth order, marital
status, and maternal smoking is linked
to information from the corresponding death
certificate such as age at death and underlying
and multiple causes of death. Also see
the Linked Birth/Infant
Death Data Set to search the data sets.
- View fetal
death data for information about pregnancy
loss in the United States.
- View the National
Vital Statistics Reports for monthly reports
about infant births and deaths and special
reports that cover infant mortality and pregnancy
loss rates by race, gender, and leading causes
of infant death.
and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Across
the U.S. (REACH U.S.). Information about this
initiative to support community coalitions in designing,
implementing, and evaluating community-driven strategies
to eliminate health disparities among racial and
ethnic groups in eight priority areas, one of which
is infant mortality.
Also see CDC's Pregnancy Risk
Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the National
Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
Tools and resources for implementing the Perinatal
Periods of Risk (PPOR) approach for mobilizing
communities to reduce infant mortality and pregnancy
loss in U.S. cities. PPOR is a joint initiative
of CityMatCH, the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC), the March
of Dimes (MOD), and the Maternal
and Child Health Bureau (MCHB).
Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child
Health and Human Development (NICHD).
Research and grant information, publications,
and other resources for health professionals,
researchers, and families about pregnancy and
infant and child health topics, including pregnancy
loss, birth defects, prematurity, and infant
mortality. Includes information about the research
and training supported by NICHD's Pregnancy
and Perinatology Branch to improve the
outcomes of pregnancy, reduce infant mortality,
and minimize maternal and infant morbidities.
Also see the Safe to Sleep
Candle. Program and legislative
information, training, and educational tools
for health and social services professionals
about infant mortality and pregnancy loss.
a hotline in
English and Spanish and resources for expectant
and new parents on ways to help their infants
for parents who have experienced the death
of an infant, and for professionals working
- Healthy People
2020. Information about this national health-promotion and disease-prevention
initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services. View the overview, objectives, and recommended interventions and resources for maternal, infant, and child health.
Center for Political and Economic Studies.
Journal articles, press releases, and other
materials from the Commission
on Paternal Involvement in Pregnancy Outcomes
(CPIPO), an initiative focusing on the
role of expectant fathers in pregnancy outcomes.
to Love Commission, an initiative analyzing
racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality,
presents papers, PowerPoint presentations,
of Dimes (MOD). Resources for
health professionals and expectant
and new parents in English and Spanish
about preconception and prenatal care, birth
loss, prematurity, bereavement,
and how to get involved in improving infants'
health by reducing the incidence of birth defects
and infant mortality. Offers perinatal
statistics (including infant mortality
rates), CE modules, medical reference information,
video and audio resources, and research grant
and Child Health Bureau (MCHB).
Information about MCHB's projects and initiatives
on behalf of America's women, infants, children,
adolescents, and their families. Initiatives
include Healthy Start,
a program to address factors contributing to
infant mortality, low birthweight, and other
adverse perinatal outcomes in high-risk populations,
and the Collaborative
Improvement and Innovation Network (CoIIN)
to Reduce Infant Mortality, a public-private
partnership to facilitate collaborative learning
and adoption of proven quality improvement
principles and practices to reduce infant mortality
and improve birth outcomes.
- National Center for Child Death Review Policy and Practice. Information about the child death review process
for infants, children, and adolescents from
birth through age 18. Presents tools for child
death review teams, state program information,
and child mortality data by state.
Center for Cultural Competence (NCCC).
cultural and linguistic competence to help
programs effectively address racial and ethnic
disparities in perinatal, infant, and child
mortality and pregnancy loss. Resources include
a set of promising
materials, a self-assessment checklist,
list, and links to related resources. Information
is available in English and Spanish.
Fetal and Infant Mortality Review Program (NFIMR).
A wealth of resources for implementing the
fetal and infant mortality review (FIMR) method,
including a directory of state and community
FIMR projects, program descriptions, data-abstraction
forms, sample laws to implement and safeguard
FIMR proceedings, training tools, and an online
discussion group. NFIMR is a collaborative
effort between the American
College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
(ACOG) and the Maternal
and Child Health Bureau (MCHB).
Healthy Start Association (NHSA).
Information about the federal Healthy Start
program and its efforts to address infant mortality,
low-birthweight infants, and racial disparities
in perinatal outcomes. Includes a directory
of Healthy Start programs nationwide, current
NHSA programs and initiatives, and a newsletter
and blog. Funded by the Maternal
and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), the federal Healthy
Start program provides community-based, culturally
competent, family-centered, comprehensive perinatal
health services to women, infants, and their
families in communities with very high rates
of infant mortality.
of Minority Health: Infant Health.
Links to news, articles, statistics, educational
materials, and websites about infant mortality
among racial and ethnic groups. Initiatives
Healthy Baby Begins with You. Information
about this national print and radio campaign
to raise awareness about infant mortality
with an emphasis on the African-American
community. Includes campaign
materials and infant mortality disparities fact
sheets. Also presents information about
another aspect of the campaign, the Preconception
Peer Educators (PPE) Program, which is
designed to educate college students about
preconception health and care and to train
them to serve as ambassadors for their peers
who are not attending college.
Unexpected Infant Death (SUID) and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
A wealth of resources for health and social
services professionals, including professionals
who work on SIDS/ID issues, first
responders, and child
care providers, as well as for families about
risk reduction and bereavement
support for pregnancy loss and sudden and
unexpected infant and child death. Resources
include bibliographies, statistics, Spanish-language
materials, a multimedia
collection, a resource
article summaries, and a training
toolkit. Presented by the MCH
Library at Georgetown University.
See the following set of MCH Library resource briefs to identify additional data and statistics, literature and research, and programs about infant mortality and pregnancy loss.
Fetal and Infant Mortality Review Program (NFIMR)
Listserv. This online discussion
group aims to encourage an information exchange
among FIMR programs and individuals interested
in fetal and infant mortality reviews.
Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition (HMHB).
Memo. This weekly newsletter presents
summaries of news and resources about maternal
and infant health. Infant mortality and pregnancy
loss are frequently addressed.
Tuesday. This weekly newsletter presents information
about Text4baby, which offers free weekly messages
by cell phone to help pregnant women and new parents
through pregnancy and their infant's first year. Signup for
Text4baby Tuesday to receive news from the national
campaign and get program updates on partners' innovative
promotion across the country.
Healthy Start Association (NHSA).
Off to a Healthy Start. This newsletter
informs Healthy Start staff and others in
the MCH community about successful community-based
approaches to reducing infant mortality and
improving perinatal outcomes. The newsletter
also highlights research and evaluation findings,
legislative activities, and conference announcements.
To access the latest issues of the newsletter,
click on Publications and Resources and then
Newsletters in the top navigation bar.
from the Start. This blog offers updates
about NHSA work and news from the MCH community
about efforts to eliminate infant mortality,
low birthweight, and racial disparities.
Sudden and Unexpected Infant/Child Death & Pregnancy
Loss Project IMPACT Listserv.
This electronic discussion group for state
and local infant mortality and risk-reduction
professionals, physicians, nurses, and researchers
encourages participants to share information,
promote policy and legislative changes, and
foster partnerships and communication.
- Also see the CDC
Birth Defects Surveillance Listserv and the Consumer
Product Safety Commission (CPSC).
- See the MCH Library family resource brief, Infant
Mortality and Pregnancy Loss. The brief presents
links to care, services, and support and websites
for expectant and new parents about ways to help
their infants survive and thrive, pregnancy loss,
losing an infant, and bereavement.
- Note: The resources in the following
section of the knowledge path present resources
for families and professionals about factors that
contribute to infant mortality and pregnancy loss: birth
defects, injuries, low
birthweight and prematurity, preconception
and pregnancy, and sleep
on Factors That Contribute to Infant Mortality
and Pregnancy Loss
Product Safety Commission (CPSC).
Safety tips, checklists, and other materials
in English and Spanish about potentially hazardous
consumer products including cribs, car seats,
and toys for infants. Offers several electronic
alert services in English and Spanish for
consumer product recalls and safety news, including
those products used in homes and communities
that are potentially hazardous for infants.
CPSC also produces a blog about safety and
issues consumer product recalls via Twitter,
mobile phone applications, RSS (Really Simple
Syndication) feeds, and other mechanisms to
automatically receive updates about new recalls
and safety news. CPSC evaluates the safety
of products sold to the public.
See CPSC's Crib Information Center.
Kids USA. Safety tips, information
about federal and state child safety laws,
car seat inspection station contact information,
and other resources for safety professionals,
educators, and families about preventing unintentional
injuries among infants, children, and adolescents.
Safe Kids is a nationwide network of organizations
working to prevent unintentional childhood
injury, a leading cause of death and disability
for children ages 14 and under.
- See the Sudden
Unexpected Infant Death (SUID) and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
(SIDS) Gateway for a list of resources
baby syndrome (abusive head trauma).
- Also see the MCH Library resource brief Child
Safety and Injury Prevention.
of Dimes: Prematurity. Information
in English and Spanish about prematurity for
health professionals, women who are pregnant
or are considering becoming pregnant, and families
with infants in the NICU. Presents patient-education
information about preventing premature delivery,
parenting in the NICU, coping with the NICU
experience, and caring for a premature infant.
Also includes a preterm-labor-assessment toolkit,
prematurity statistics and
research information, CE resources, a series
information about the March
of Dimes Prematurity Campaign, information
about the costs of prematurity to families
and businesses, and personal stories. A collection
of fact sheets includes one about low-birthweight
Information and support to families of infants
born preterm. Includes contact information for
local support groups.
Practices Network (PPN) on Children, Families
and Communities: Low Birth Weight/Prematurity
Resources and Tools. An issue
brief and links to research-based resources
about low birthweight and prematurity.
- Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns. Information about this initiative to reduce the risk of significant complications
and long-term health problems for pregnant women and infants. Components include
public-private partnership to reduce early elective deliveries and a
funding opportunity for testing new approaches to prenatal care. Strong Start
is a joint effort between the Centers for Medicare and
Medicaid Services (CMS), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA),
the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), and organizations
devoted to the health of mothers and newborns.
General's Conference on the Prevention of Preterm
Birth. Webcast, agenda, and background
materials and information for this June 2008
conference to increase awareness of preterm
birth in the United States, review key findings
and reports, and establish an agenda for prevention.
- Also see the MCH Library resource brief Prematurity and Preterm Birth
Academy of Pediatrics (AAP): Sleep.
Resources for families, health professionals,
and child care providers about creating a safe
sleep environment for infants and reducing
the risk for SIDS. Initiatives
Child Care America Safe Sleep Campaign.
Brochures for parents and child care providers
in English and Spanish and training and education
materials for health professionals about
reducing the incidence of SIDS in child care
SIDS and Other
Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Expansion of Recommendations for a Safe
Infant Sleep Environment. (2011). [Policy statement, Technical report].
Product Safety Commission: Crib Information
Center. Product safety news, recalls,
and regulations and standards in English and
Spanish for cribs, bassinets and play yards.
Candle. Resources for health professionals,
child care providers, and expectant and new
parents about safe sleep environments. Initiatives
Basics: Safe Sleep Saves Lives!
Materials to help prevent infant
deaths caused by unsafe sleep practices.
Recent resources include
Behavior: The Most Important Modeling Job of Your
Life. Information and materials for this national
professional education campaign that urges nurses
in NICU and well-baby nurseries to incorporate safe
sleep policies into their existing protocols.
Infant Safe Sleep Program. Information about this
training and education program for pharmacists to enlist
their help in promoting safe sleep messages to parents
Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child
Care and Early Education (NRC).
Each state's child care licensure
regulations that includes those involving
safe sleep environments for infants. Publications
Safe Sleep Practices and SIDS/Suffocation Risk Reduction. (2012). This compilation presents 27 health and safety standards on sleep safety from
for Our Children: National Health
and Safety Performance Standards—Guidelines
for Out-of-Home Child Care, 3rd ed (2011).
The guidelines were developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), American
Public Health Association (APHA),
Resource Center for Health and Safety
in Child Care in consultation with panels of experts.
to Sleep Campaign®. Information
about this national campaign aimed at health
professionals, child care providers, and families
about ways to reduce the risk for SIDS and other sleep-related causes of infant death. Includes
outreach materials in English and Spanish and
online curricula for nurses and pharmacists. The campaign is a collaboration of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver
National Institute of Child Health and Human
Development, the Maternal
and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the American
Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), First
Candle, and the Association
of SIDS and Infant Mortality Programs (ASIP).
Unexpected Infant Death (SUID) and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
(SIDS) Gateway: Safe Sleep Environment. Information
for parents, caregivers, and health professionals on safe sleep
for infants, including placing infants to sleep on their backs,
safe crib environments, and related topics.
Also view the gateway's guide, Child
Care and SIDS, which contains a selection of
resources for families and professionals on topics
that include infant sleep position.
Related MCH Library Resources
Infant Mortality and Pregnancy Loss: Knowledge Path, 6th ed. (November 2010).
(Updated: March 2014).
Author: Susan Brune Lorenzo, M.L.S., MCH Library.
Contributors: Jeanne Anastasi, M.A., Beth DeFrancis, M.L.S., and Tracy Lopez,
M.S.L.S., National SUID/SIDS Resource Center.
Reviewers: Suzanne Bronheim, Ph. D., National Center for Cultural Competence; Stacey D. Cunningham, M.S.W., M.P.H., National Healthy Start Association; Hanan Kallash, R.N., M.S., First Candle; Olivia K. Pickett, M.A., M.L.S., MCH Library.
Editor: Ruth Barzel, M.A., MCH Library.